Apply These Secret WAYS TO Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For those who have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of having a miscarriage, you may be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
stillbirth What type of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How do chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different explanations why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is necessary that it have the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a woman to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is far more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The opportunity of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to get a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage appears to be increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates in the last decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to execute is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common method of chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, a process called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this particular method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no email address details are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it could be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months to come back from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood at the same time the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How do it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the type of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. More often than not, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a minimal possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the chance of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes one to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss might help a couple start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially important for patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or eliminate chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing may be able to help increase their chances of having an effective healthy pregnancy.