Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. For those who have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of having a miscarriage, you may well be wondering what caused losing and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the following questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur due to a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes which come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is essential that it have the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material at the time of conception or in an embryo or fetus can cause a female to either not become pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of most first trimester miscarriages are caused by chromosome abnormalities. This number could be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is far more common than most people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother ages.

Most women who experience a miscarriage continue to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience several miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this may be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas in past times the miscarriage would have were just a unique period. Another reason may be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually refers to many types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to perform is really a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue could identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is named karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For that reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from the mother (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the right result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue instead of the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or even more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Chrissy Teigen Results from karyotyping usually have a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more prone to receive results and the outcomes are typically returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood concurrently the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

If a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Usually, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a minimal chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your family that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it can prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the explanation for a pregnancy loss can help a couple of start the emotional healing process, moving past the question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it could either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to truly have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.